Dr. Samuel Hsu
We have thought on your steadfast love, O God, in the midst of your temple.- Psalm 48:91
I want to thank2 Vince Treadway and the directors of the Alliance of Christian Musicians for giving me this opportunity to present some personal thoughts on the various means of grace the Lord has given us for our ministry of music.
The sons of Korah, those wonderful Levitical musicians in the Book of Psalms, encourage us with these words: “We have thought on your steadfast love, O God, in the midst of your temple” (Psalm 48:9). The German hymnwriter Joachim Neander likewise exhorts us to “ponder anew what the Almighty can do, if with his love he befriend us.”3
The inspiration for this presentation comes from the title of a book by the Peruvian author Gustavo Gutiérrez, who in turn found his focus from the writings of Bernard of Clairvaux. In his book, We Drink from Our Own Wells: the Spiritual Journey of a People, Gutiérrez describes his experience of learning to worship God through the prism of the palpable human need of his Latin American congregation.
Gutiérrez writes, “At the root of every spirituality there is a particular experience that is had by concrete persons living at a particular time. The experience is both proper to them and communicable to others. … Bernard of Clairvaux … says that in these matters all people should drink from their own wells. The great spiritualities in the life of the church continue to exist because they keep sending their followers back to the sources.”4
The context of our own ministry may differ from that of Father Gutiérrez. Nevertheless, we too need to drink from our own wells. This morning, I would like to think about three wells, or three sources from which we can draw our nourishment and refreshment as Christian musicians: 1.“Jesu, juva”: The Well of Personal Inadequacy, 2. Common Grace: The Well of Personal Imagination, and 3. Special Joy: The Well of Personal Investment.
Johann Sebastian Bach often placed the letters JJ at the beginning of his music manuscripts. JJ stands for “Jesu, juva,” the Latin phrase meaning “Jesus, Help!” Along with SDG (“Soli Deo Gloria,” To God Alone Be the Glory) which frequently appears at the end of Bach’s manuscripts, these are the prayers of Bach, the Christian musician. Albert Schweitzer tells us, “Music is an act of worship with Bach. His artistic activity and his personality are both based on his piety. If he is to be understood from any standpoint at all, it is from this.”5 What is the meaning of Bach’s prayer of “Jesu, juva”? It is his confession of inadequacy. Jesus tells us in John 15:5, “Apart from me you can do nothing.”
Paul Tripp writes, “The authoritative truth and wisdom you need to guide you through your situations and relationships simply can’t be obtained from any human source.”6 As we serve the Lord in music, let us join Bach in acknowledging our poverty. Oswald Chambers says:, “The thing I am blessed in is my poverty. If I know I have no strength of will, no nobility of disposition, then Jesus says—‘Blessed are you,’7 because it is through this poverty that I enter His Kingdom.”8
Like the Samaritan woman, let us come to the well of our inadequacy and meet the One who gives us the living water (John 4:10). The water which Jesus gives will become in us “a well of water springing up into everlasting life” (John 4:14, KJV).9 When the Samaritan woman met Jesus, she not only came to grips with her life of sin, she also received the gift of salvation which enabled her to be a vibrant witness to her community. In like manner, when we pray for God’s help, He freely gives us what we need. Therefore, when our task is done, we realize it is all God’s doing, and we say with Bach “To God Alone Be the Glory! Soli Deo Gloria!”
Let us go a little deeper. Perhaps “inadequacy” does not fully describe our poverty. When God calls us to serve Him as Christian musicians, He is calling us to do something which, apart from His divine enablement, is impossible. Madeleine L’Engle’s words about the Apostle Peter in her book Walking on Water are instructive, “When Jesus called Peter to come to him across the water, Peter, for one brief, glorious moment, remembered how, and strode with ease across the lake. This is how we are meant to be, and then we forget, and we sink. But if we cry out for help (as Peter did) we will be pulled out of the water, and we won’t drown. And if we listen, we will hear; and if we look, we will see.”10
Going back to Bach, we need to understand Bach’s prayers of supplication in light of what he wrote in the margins of his personal Bible. Bach writes, “Wherever there is devotional music, God with His grace is always present.” (Bey einer andächtig Musig ist allezeit Gott mit seiner Gnaden Gegenwart.)11 This thought came to Bach as he was reading 2 Chronicles 5: 13-14,”… and when the song was raised with trumpets and cymbals and other musical instruments in praise to the LORD, “for he is good, for his steadfast love endures forever,” the house, the house of the LORD, was filled with a cloud, so that the priests could not stand to minister because of the cloud, for the glory of the LORD filled the house of God.” This is the account of the bringing of the Ark into the Temple. The presence of the Lord, His Shekhinah Glory, so filled the Temple that the priests could not stand to minister.
Robin Leaver’s commentary is helpful. He writes, “In his comment Bach has beautifully summed up the conviction that through appropriate music in the service of worship the worshipers become aware of the presence and grace of God.”12 I am sure this is a dimension of ministry we all treasure. God has certainly answered Bach’s prayers most powerfully. We all can testify that the music which God gave to Bach truly has nourished our souls.
Albert Schweitzer reminds us of one example from music history, “The communion hymn . . . “Schmücke dich, o liebe Seele” inspired [Bach] . . . to that splendid chorale fantasia that sent Schumann into ecstasy when he heard Mendelssohn play it on the organ.”13
Robert Carwithen told me that his teacher, Maurice Duruflé, found enormous comfort for his soul during his convalescence from a serious car accident by painfully climbing onto the organ in his apartment and playing Bach’s chorale prelude, “Ich ruf’ zu dir, Herr Jesu Christ.”14 It is noteworthy that, after more than 35 years of suffering from dystonia, Leon Fleisher chose to begin his first CD of performing with two hands by playing not just one, but two Bach chorale preludes: “Jesu, Joy of Man’s Desiring” and “Sheep May Safely Graze.”15 Indeed, we all have our favorite Bach compositions which have given us inspiration and nourishment for our ministry.
As the examples of Schumann, Duruflé, and Fleisher have shown us, we pray “Jesu, juva” not only out of our poverty, but also out of our pain. Indeed, musicians do serve the Lord in their pain. Think of the poignant story of Bach composing Well-Tempered Clavier while sitting in jail in Weimar for nearly four weeks.16 In my student days I was taught that it was the Orgelbüchlein which Bach wrote in prison.17 That would have made a more dramatic movie—Bach in shackles humming “Ich ruf’ zu Dir.” All the same, Bach was able to fulfill his calling as a Christian musician even in prison.
Or, let us consider the story of Olivier Messiaen composing Quartet for the End of Time while experiencing unspeakable suffering in a German military prison camp. In the midst of horrific physical deprivation—Messiaen had developed chilblains from excessive cold and malnutrition, he composed a work based on the Book of Revelation to be played on the piano, violin, cello, and clarinet by him and three fellow prisoners.18 Messiaen tells us:,“When I was a prisoner, the absence of given nourishment led me to dream in colors: I saw the rainbow of the Angel, and strange whirling colors.”19
Out of the depths of his suffering, Messiaen found grace to write a work of transcendent beauty. He said, “This Quartet comprises eight movements. Why? Seven is the perfect number, the Creation in six days sanctified by the divine Sabbath; the seventh day of this repose extends into eternity and becomes the eighth day of eternal light, of unalterable peace.”20
In whatever situation God’s people find themselves, they always pray: “Jesus, juva!” In the Psalms, we hear the Psalmist cry out to God, and we learn that God’s gracious presence lifts him up and enables him to contemplate God’s greatness rather than the Psalmist’s own human poverty and pain. In our communion with all the saints, we echo their cries, and we join them in calling out to our Lord Jesus for help. In so doing, we are enabled by the Holy Spirit to be delivered from what Gutiérrez calls the “attachment to our own feelings,”21 and to lift our eyes to the Lord from whom comes our help (Psalm 121:1-2).
Yes, let us cry out to God and let us drink deeply from the love He offers us in Christ. Bernard of Clairvaux writes, “Jesus, thou joy of loving hearts, Thou fount of life, thou light of men, From the best bliss that earth imparts, We turn unfilled to thee again.”22
James Montgomery Boice reminds us that “the cure is to seek God’s face, so ours will not be downcast, which is what the psalmist does.”23 Boice wrote a beautiful hymn on this subject for which Paul Jones has provided a memorable tune. The fourth stanza in particular speaks powerfully to our need to drink from our well of inadequacy. “Come to the Well of unmerited favor; Stretch out your hand; fill your cup to the brim. Jesus is such a compassionate Savior, Draw from the grace that flows freely from him.”24
Having bowed our knees in prayer, we now look out to the wonders of God’s creation. Francis Schaeffer is famous for saying that we bow twice to God. He writes, “But now, after the Fall of Adam, we must bow twice—as a creature before the Creator and as a sinner coming to a holy God through Jesus’ work.”25 Schaeffer is reminding us that God is both Savior and Creator.
For Christian musicians, perhaps we need to turn the phrase around. As servants of God our Savior, we also need to be reminded that God is our Creator. In other words, we need to appreciate the gift of common grace. In this second section, I would like to examine the doctrine of common grace in relation to our music ministry.
We often regard the gift of music as common grace. With the Reformers, we recognize that music is the handmaiden of theology. Luther tells us, “Music is a fair and lovely gift of God which has often wakened and moved me to the joy of preaching. . . . Next after theology I give to music the highest place and the greatest honor. . . . Experience proves that next to the Word of God only music deserves to be extolled as the mistress and governess of the feelings of the human heart.”26
Calvin likewise teaches in his sermon on 2 Samuel 6, that from experience we know that song has great power and energy to move and inflame the heart to call upon God and to praise him with a most forceful and ardent zeal.27
To Luther and Calvin, music is a gift of God’s common grace which Christians use in praise to God. John Murray’s writing on this subject is very helpful. He tells us that “common grace serves the purpose of special or saving grace, and saving grace has as its specific end the glorification of the whole body of God’s elect, which in turn has its ultimate end in the glory of God’s name.”
“Special grace has its precondition and sphere of operation in common grace,” Murray says. Therefore, “Without common grace special grace would not be possible because special grace would have no material out of which to erect its structure. It is common grace that provides not only the sphere in which, but also the material out of which, the building fully framed together may grow up into a holy temple in the Lord.”28
“Special grace does not annihilate but rather brings its redemptive, regenerative and sanctifying influence to bear upon every natural or common gift; it transforms all activities and departments of life; it brings every good gift into the service of the kingdom of God. Christianity is not flight from nature; it is the renewal and sanctification of nature. It is not flight from the world; it is the evangelization of the world.”29
Yes, we bow twice—to God our Savior who has given us new life through the shed blood of Christ, and to God our gracious Creator who has given us the gift of music to express all our life in Him. Bach’s inscription for his Orgelbüchlein is a good motto for all of us, “dem höchsten Gott allein zu Ehren, dem Nächsten, draus sich zu belehren.”(“to the honor of the Most High God alone, and for my neighbor, so that he may learn from it.”)30
The wonderful soprano Sheryl Olson, a friend and fellow-parishioner at Tenth Presbyterian Church, recently told me that two books had encouraged her in her Christian walk as she served God in the field of opera:31 Leland Ryken’s The Liberated Imagination32 and Madeleine L’Engle’s Walking on Water.33 I praise God for Christian authors like Ryken and L’Engle whose writings have helped us articulate an authentically Christian response to the arts. Let us say with the hymn-writer Maltbie Babcock, “This is my Father’s world.”34 Ryken writes, “When all of life is perceived as being under the guidance of God, the old sacred/secular dichotomy becomes virtually meaningless.”35
One important emphasis of these authors is the doctrine of the incarnation. As musicians, we are called to be birthgivers. Ryken instructs us, “The Incarnation of Christ provides a superb model for what a work of art is. Art, too, is a little incarnation—an embodiment of meaning in the concrete form of images, sounds, and stories.”36 L’Engle asserts: “To paint a picture or to write a story or to compose a song is an incarnational activity. The artist is a servant who is willing to be a birthgiver.”37
Reminding us of Mary who was asked to give birth to Christ, L’Engle continues, “Mary did not always understand. But one does not have to understand to be obedient. Instead of understanding—that intellectual understanding which we are so fond of—there is a feeling of rightness, of knowing, knowing things which we are not yet able to understand. . . . As long as we know what it’s about, then we can have the courage to go wherever we are asked to go, even if we fear that the road may take us through danger and pain.”38
Colossians 1:15 teaches us that Christ “is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation.” A. T. Robertson tells us that it means “Jesus is the very stamp of God the Father as he was before the Incarnation (John 17:5) and is now (Phil. 2:5-11; Heb. 1:3).”39 Based on this profound understanding of the incarnation, Dorothy Sayers asserts that “the true work of art, then, is something new.”40
The intent of this type of thinking is surely not to elevate human work to the level of the divine, but to make us realize that everything we do has a unique beauty and freshness about it. We have heard that no two snowflakes are alike. Such is the richness of God’s creation. So, every composition we write, every performance we give, yes, every time we practice our music—all our creative work partakes of this deep richness of God’s creative order. We in fact never repeat ourselves. Each time we give expression in music, it is new, it is fresh.
On this matter, I have learned much from the writings of Gerard Manley Hopkins. He writes, “We may learn that all things are created by consideration of the world without or of ourselves the world within. The former is the consideration commonly dwelt on, but the latter takes on the mind more hold.”41
Christopher Devlin explains Hopkins’s seemingly obscure comment: It is preferable, Hopkins states, to follow Duns Scotus’s emphasis on the thisness (haecceitas) of creation rather than Thomas Aquinas’ focus on the that-ness (quidditas).42
Opening our mind and our imagination to the endless joy of the “this-ness” of God’s creation, we can find the refreshment we need each time we engage in our artistic work. There is a poem by Hopkins which speaks powerfully to this deep and rich well of nature. It is entitled “God’s Grandeur.”
“THE WORLD is charged with the grandeur of God.
It will flame out, like shining from shook foil;
It gathers to a greatness, like the ooze of oil
Crushed. Why do men then now not reck his rod?
“THE WORLD is charged with the grandeur of God.
It will flame out, like shining from shook foil;
It gathers to a greatness, like the ooze of oil
Crushed. Why do men then now not reck his rod?
Generations have trod, have trod, have trod;
And all is seared with trade; bleared, smeared with toil;
And wears man’s smudge and shares man’s smell: the soil
Is bare now, nor can foot feel, being shod.
And for all this, nature is never spent;
There lives the dearest freshness deep down things;
And though the last lights off the black West went
Oh, morning, at the brown brink eastward, springs—
Because the Holy Ghost over the bent
World broods with warm breast and with ah! bright wings.”43
Nevertheless, having just thought about the wonders of God’s creation, we must remind ourselves that our musical incarnation takes place in the midst of sin and suffering. “For we know that the whole creation has been groaning together in the pains of childbirth until now” (Romans 8:22).
In fact, Dr. Ryken offers these wise words of caution: “There has been a one sided emphasis on the Incarnation in Christian aesthetic theory to the neglect of other doctrines. One often gets the impression that to affirm every facet of earthly life, including its sin, is to follow the pattern of Christ. Yet Christ rejected as well as affirmed earthly life. He said some thoroughly uncomplimentary things about physical reality and earthly endeavor.”44
Harold Best, Leland Ryken’s colleague at Wheaton College, seems to have the same thoughts in mind when he exhorts Christian musicians to follow Christ, not only in His Incarnation but also in the emptying of Himself. Best writes, “Each musician must come to experience the dignity, rightness, and eventual joy of putting things aside, of emptying oneself and taking the form of a servant. Such musicians must be able to move back and forth, gracefully, servingly, and willingly, from the symphony to the folk tune; back and forth without complaint, compromise, or snobbery, without the conceit that doing an oratorio is somehow more worthy or more deserving than doing a hymn tune. All servant musicians must be able to be in creative transit, serving this community and challenging that one, all the while showing grace, power, elegance, and imagination.”45
Yes, we share in Christ’s suffering, becoming like him in his death (Phil. 3:10). Our Lord wept for his friend Lazarus (John 11:35), and wailed for the city of Jerusalem (Matthew 23:37). When we are gripped by the painful reality of suffering found in works created during the Holocaust, such as Messiaen’s Quartet for the End of Time, let us follow our Lord in expressing our profound grief.
Earlier I spoke of Francis Schaeffer’s insistence that we bow twice to God—as Creator and as Savior, let us again turn to Schaeffer for his insightful assertion that our art has two themes, “Man is fallen and flawed [minor theme], but he is redeemable on the basis of Christ’s work [major theme].”46
In a memorable conversation I had with Leland Ryken at his home in Wheaton in 1997, I tried to probe this wonderful scholar’s mind on the subject of the incarnational theory of the arts. I was stunned by his gracious but challenging response: “Christ was incarnated, crucified, buried, and resurrected. Having ascended into Heaven, Christ is seated now at the right hand of God the Father, making intercession for us. If Christian musicians seek to have an incarnational theory of the arts, should they not also have an ascensional theory of the arts?”47
It has been almost 12 years since I heard this powerful challenge from Leland Ryken. I am just as overwhelmed by it today as I was when I first heard it. I hope someday he will write about this ascensional theory of the arts. In the meantime, let us heed his words and come often to the Throne of Grace where our ascended Lord is.
This is what the Apostle Peter tells us about our relationship with our ascended Lord Jesus, “Though you have not seen him, you love him. Though you do not now see him, you believe in him and rejoice with joy that is inexpressible and filled with glory, obtaining the outcome of your faith, the salvation of your souls.” (1 Peter 1:8-9)
Yes, the joy of the Lord is our strength. There is a special joy which God gives us through our own ministry. To understand how important this special joy is to our ministry, I would like to look at the original words of Bernard of Clairvaux concerning drinking from our own wells.
The occasion for this famous remark was Bernard’s pastoral care and wise counsel for his former student who had become Pope Eugene III. The work is titled Five Books on Consideration: Advice to a Pope. This is what Bernard said to Eugene, “What does it profit you if you gain the whole world and lose your single self? Though you be wise, you lack wisdom to yourself, if you do not belong to yourself. But how far do you lack wisdom? In my opinion, altogether. Though you know all mysteries, though you know the breadth of the earth,the height of the heavens, the depth of the sea, if you know not yourself, you will be like a man building without a foundation, and will succeed not in rearing an edifice, but in making a ruin. Whatever structure you raise outside yourself will be like a heap of dust before the wind. He, therefore, is not wise who is not wise to himself. The wise man will be wise to himself, and will first of all drink of his own well. Let, then, your consideration begin at yourself; and not only so, let it end there.”48
These words may appear harsh to our modern sensibility, but Bernard is telling Eugene what he needs to hear. In short, Bernard is telling Eugene to avoid ministry burn-out and to take good care of his own spiritual well-being. But, what Bernard is saying is something we generally do not like to think about. Perhaps we are embarrassed to acknowledge that we need to be nourished by our own ministry. But, that is precisely the point. And this is an important truth for all of us, whatever our profession.
Earlier this year as Derek Jeter was closing in on Lou Gehrig’s record of the number of hits, this is what he told The New York Times reporter, “I was talking to my parents not too long ago, and they were telling me, ‘you’ve got to enjoy some of the things as they’re happening – there’s nothing wrong with that.’ So I’m sure it’s something that I’ll enjoy if it happens.”49
As we all know, Derek Jeter reached his historic milestone of 2,722 hits on September 11, 2009. He said after the game, “Your dream was always to play for the team. Once you get here, you just want to stay and try to be consistent. So this really wasn’t a part of it. The whole experience has been overwhelming.”50 Such was his humble and joyful response to his monumental achievement. Let us learn from Derek Jeter, and let us find joy in our work.
I think I have something even more inspirational for us. On the occasion of the 175th anniversary of Tenth Church, Sinclair Ferguson said something that has stayed with me ever since. He said, “I have marveled not only at what the Lord has taught me and done to me through the preaching of others, but, perhaps even more, marveled at what He has taught me and done to me through the preaching in which my own voice has been the mouthpiece. So, we are as much a part of the congregation as anybody is. And that’s what keeps us fresh.”51
Ferguson went on to exhort the members of Tenth Church with these words, “You actually don’t really believe in the faithfulness of God if you believe He was faithful in the past but aren’t living in such a way that expresses the conviction that He’s going to be faithful to you in the future. The challenge . . . is not to rest on past faithfulness but to trust the God who is faithful that he will be faithful—as faithful—in the future.”52 Therefore, these great truths of Scripture which Sinclair Ferguson proclaims to the congregation of Tenth Church are indeed a well from which he himself also drinks.
Let us also drink from our own wells. I am reminded of Paul’s advice to Timothy, “It is the hardworking farmer who ought to have the first share of the crops” (2 Tim. 2:6). And what was the Apostle Paul’s special joy? He called the Philippians “my joy, my crown” (Phil. 4:1), and he told the Thessalonians, “So, being affectionately desirous of you, we were ready to share with you not only the gospel of God but also our own selves, because you have become very dear to us” (1 Thess. 2:8).
I began this morning by pointing to the example of the sons of Korah who thought of God’s steadfast love in the midst of their ministry in the Temple. I conclude with their words of exhortation in Psalm 87:7: “Singers and dancers alike say, ‘All my springs are in you.’” Yes, we drink from our own wells, because they have been given to us by God. God gives us His living water in His Word, His inexhaustible riches in His creation, and He gives each of us a special joy through the particular ministry we have. No, we do not look back nostalgically to those special times of God’s blessing in the past. Rather, we take heart that God who has blessed us and used us yesterday is the same today and tomorrow, and we pray “Jesu, juva!” as we continue to serve Christ and His Kingdom until He returns.
1Unless otherwise indicated, Scripture quotations are from the English Standard Version of The Holy Bible, Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2001. Back
2The author also wishes to thank Paul Isensee, Ephraim Schäfli and Samuel Cardillo for their gracious assistance in the preparation of this manuscript. Back
3Praise to the Lord, the Almighty, Joachim Neander, 1680, trans. Catherine Winkworth, 1863. Back
4Gustavo Gutiérrez, We Drink from Our Own Wells: the Spiritual Journey of a People, New York, 1984, p. 37. Back
5Albert Schweitzer, J. S. Bach, trans. Ernest Newman, Boston: Bruce Humphries, 1911, vol. I, p. 167. Back
6Paul David Tripp, Broken-Down House: Living Productively in a World Gone Bad, Wapwallopen, PA: Shepherd Press, 2009, p. 80. Back
7Quotation marks for the words of Jesus are added by the author for the sake of clarity. Back
8Oswald Chambers, My Utmost for His Highest, Uhrichsville, OH: Barbour Publishing, 1997, p. 234. Back
9The King James Version of The Holy Bible, 1611. Back
10Madeleine L’Engle, Walking on Water: Reflections on Faith and Art, New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1980, p. 196. Back
11J. S. Bach and Scripture: Glosses from the Calov Bible Commentary, ed., Robin A. Leaver, St. Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House, 1985, p. 97. Back
13Schweitzer, I. 12. Back
14From the author’s telephone conversation with Maestro Robert Carwithen, September 7, 2009. Back
15Leon Fleisher, Two Hands, IndieBlu, 2004. Back
16Christoph Wolff: Johann Sebastian Bach: The Learned Musician, New York: W. W. Norton, 2000, p. 184. Back
17Charles Sanford Terry: Bach: A Biography, London: Oxford University Press, 1928, p. 114. Back
18Rebecca Rischin: For the End of Time: The Story of the Messiaen Quartet, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2003, pp. 23-24, 50-52. Back
19Claude Samuel: “Olivier Messiaen analyse ses oeuvres: Quatuor pour la fin du Temps” in Hommage à Olivier Messiaen, Paris: La Recherche Artistique, 1978, p. 31; Quoted in Rischin, p. 52. Back
20Olivier Messiaen, Quatuor pour la fin du Temps, miniature score, Paris: Durand, 1942, p. I; quoted in Rischin, p. 101. Back
21Gutiérrez, p. 24. Back
22Jesus, Thou Joy of Loving Hearts, Attr. To Bernard of Clairvaux, ca. 1150, arr. and trans. Ray Palmer, 1858. Back
23James Momtgomery Boice, Psalms: An Expositional Commentary, Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1996, Vol. 2, p. 371. Back
24Come To The Waters, James Montgomery Boice, 2000 (James Montgomery Boice and Paul Steven Jones, Hymns For A Modern Reformation, Philadelphia: Tenth Presbyterian Church, 2000, p. 21. Back
25Francis A. Schaeffer, Genesis in Space and Time, in The Complete Works of Francis A. Schaeffer: A Christian Worldview, vol. 2, p. 78. Back
26Roland H. Bainton, Here I Stand: A Life of Martin Luther, Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1950, pp. 166-7. Back
27“. . . nous connaissons par expérience que le chant a grande force et vigueur d’émouvoir et d’enflamber le coeur des hommes pour invoquer et louer Dieu d’un zèle plus véhément et ardent. Il y a toujours à regarder que le chant ne soit pas léger et volage, mais ait poids et majesté.” From Calvin’s sermon on 2 Samuel 6, quoted in Alain Perrot, Le visage humain de Jean Calvin, Genève: Labor et Fides, 1986, p. 204. Back
28John Murray, “Common Grace,” in Collected Writings of John Murray, Edinburgh: The Banner of Truth Trust, 1977, vol. 2, p. 113. Back
29Murray, p. 117. Back
30Johann Sebastian Bach, Orgelbüchlein, ed. Robert Clark and John David Peterson, St. Louis: Condirdia, 1984, p. 7. Back
31From the author’s conversation with Mrs. Sheryl Woods Olsen at Csehy Summer School of Music in Houghton, NY, July 21, 2009. Back
32Leland Ryken, The Liberated Imagination: Thinking Christianly About the Arts, Colorado Springs, CO: WaterBrook Press, 1989. Back
33L’Engle, op. cit. Back
34This Is My Father’s World, Maltbie D. Babcock, 1901. Back
35Ryken, p. 48. Back
36Ryken, p. 17. Back
37L’Engle, p. 18. Back
38L’Engle, pp. 22-3. Back
39A. T. Robertson, Word Pictures in the New Testament, Nashville, TN: Boardman Press, 1931, Vol. 4, p. 477. Back
40Dorothy L. Sayers, “Toward a Christian Aesthetic,” in The Whimsical Christian, New York: Macmillan, 1978, p. 83. Back
41The Sermons and Devotional Writings of Gerard Manley Hopkins, ed. Christopher Devlin, S.J., London: Oxford University Press, 1959, p. 122. Back
42Devlin, p.283. Back
43“God’s Grandeur,”The Poems of Gerard Manley Hopkins, Fourth Edition, ed. W. H. Gardner and N. H. MacKenzie, London: Oxford University Press, 1970, p. 66. Back
44Ryken, p. 17. Back
45Harold M. Best, Music Through the Eyes of Faith, San Francisco: Harper, 1993, p. 33. Back
46Francis A. Schaeffer, Art and the Bible, Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 1973, pp.56-57. Back
47From the author’s conversation with Dr. Leland Ryken at the home of Dr. and Mrs. Ryken in Wheaton, IL, November 2, 1997. Back
48St Bernard. On Consideration, trans. by George Lewis, Oxford, 1908. Back
49The New York Times, September 3, 2009. Back
50The New York Times, September 12, 2009. Back
51Craig Claudin, This People, This Place: A Film About God’s Work Through the People of Tenth Presbyterian Church, Philadelphia: Tenth Presbyterian Church, 2004. Back